In 3ipe we are dedicated to pavement engineering

In 3ipe we are dedicated to pavement engineering, and for our projects we have equipment to evaluate the structural and functional condition. In addition to the consulting division, which makes measurements, designs and management of pavements, we have a division dedicated to products for pavements, and a division dedicated to equipment. The equipment division develops, markets, and provides calibration services for pavement evaluation equipment.


1. Falling Weight Deflectometer.

For deflectometer evaluation we have an HWD (Heavy Weight Deflectometer) that can apply loads up to 240kN, and lightweight deflectometers LWD (Light Weight Deflectometer). We have the most extensive experience in the analysis and interpretation of deflectometry tests. LWDs are manufactured in 3ipe, and are typically used to evaluate lower layers during construction. The HWD allows testing at load levels suitable for airports and port infrastructure, as well as all types of roads. We also calibrate HWD, FWD and LWD.

2. Equipment to evaluate surface condition.

For high performance evaluation of IRI surface irregularity we have laser profilometers. Each one of these equipments measures the elevation profile and in real time displays the IRI every 100m and register the IRI in files every 5m and every 100m. The IRI every 5m file includes the GPS coordinates. The acquisition software allows to mark the events. For rutting we added additional laser sensors. For measuring macrotexture we added a higher frequency sensor. This equipment is 3ipe brand, i.e. developed by us, and is a class 1 equipment of the World Bank classification.

3. Friction Tester.

For the measurement of the coefficient of friction (also called slip resistance) on 3ipe we use a continuous measurement device «Traction Watcher One» (TWO). The TWO meter technology is very similar to the GripTester because the measuring wheel is partially blocked, arranged in a longitudinal direction. But it has higher repeatability because it is not towed, but rests directly on the vehicle. This prevents the equipment from bouncing around like a light trolley. It uses ASTM E1551 smooth measuring wheel. Measurements are made by applying a 0.5 mm water film when measuring on road pavements and 1.0 mm on airport pavements. The measured coefficient of friction and the estimated value of the equivalent SCRIM reading are reported. It is an equipment manufactured in Norway by the company Olsense, which is approved by the FAA for airports, and is used on roads in Europe, Canada and other countries.

4. Laser profilers for IRI, Rutting and macrotexture.

We use 360° camera systems and/or 170° front cameras, and/or downward pointing cameras. All together with recollection and post processing software (Lince and PCImetrix) for road inventory and to identify surface deterioration such as cracking, potholes, ripples, asphalt shedding zones, etc. We carry out PCI (Pavement Condition Index) surveys and other surface inspection methods.

5. Reference Profilometer.

With a FACE Dipstick model 2285 pivoting profilometer (the fastest) we measure short sections of pavement. We use it, for example, to obtain the transverse profile in airport runways, or the F-numbers of level and flatness in industrial pavements (floors). We also use it to verify rutting depths, or deviations from rules of any length (Hi-Lo, flatness), in bridges, tunnels or building slabs. It can be used to measure vertical movements in joints.

6. Response type roughness.

For unpaved roads, as an alternative to the laser profiler, we have the Rooga system, which by combining an odometer with GPS and one or two accelerometers (two if you want to measure each track), allows to determine the Class 3 roughness of the tracks according to the World Bank classification or «roughness with response type equipment».

7. Georadar (GPR) for thickness determination.

We use high frequency (1.2 1.6 or 2.3GHz) «monostatic shielded» antennas. The frequency is defined according to the expected thicknesses, to balance the depth of the study with the thickness resolution in the upper layers. The antenna is mounted with a tilting mount, which allows it to be suspended over the ground. The work is carried out at a normal traffic speed of 80 km/h to avoid external dependence on safety vehicles.

8. Horizontal Retroreflectometer.

We offer precise measurements of the visibility of the demarcation on road pavements.

9. Equipment for measuring traffic noise levels

We perform measurements at the roadside and also on the wheel of the vehicles. The former are used from the point of view of noise pollution, as requested by the Ministry of the Environment, and include all emission sources. The latter are used in pavement engineering, to control the noise level at the source, which at speeds above 30 or 35Km/h is the wheel-pavement interface. For the measurement at the wheel we use the OBSI (On-Board Sound Intensity) method.